King Ludwig I shapes the new Bavarian nation. The upgrading of its infrastructure becomes the most important element. The new regions are connected with the old by canals, roads and railroads. Important strategic points are filled with such historical monuments as the Bavaria together with the Hall of Fame in Munich. Along with the capital of Munich, Ludwig I especially builds up Regensburg with his buildings – cathedral towers, the Hall of Liberation and Walhalla. There are nevertheless social and political tensions in Bavaria, too, which lead to revolution in 1848 – uprisings that have an idiosyncratic touch in the kingdom, though. Not only social grievances but also anger over rising beer prices and over the king’s affair with Lola Montez drives people to revolt. Many Bavarians, especially in the new domains, are ardent German nationalists to boot.
King Maximilian II makes Bavaria one of the leading German nations through his science and cultural policies. He revives the Enlightenment idea of “liberalitas bavariae”. The motto “Tradition and Modernity” stems from him: Both traditional Bavarian costume and futuristic projects such as the Glaspalast or the Schrannenhalle on the Viktualienmarkt in Munich are patronized. He hikes through the Alps in a loden jacket and becomes a fashion trendsetter.